PART 1 (12 pts)

 Questions 1-5

Reading Passage has seven paragraphs  A-G.

Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs C-G from the list of headings below.

Write the appropriate numbers i-x in boxes 29-33 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

i The Crick and Watson approach to research
ii Antidotes  to bacterial infection
iii The testing of hypotheses
iv Explaining the inductive method
v Anticipating results bef ore data is collected
vi How research is done and how it is reported
vii The role of hypotheses in scientific research
viii  Deducing  the consequences of hypotheses
ix Kar l Popper’s claim that the scientific method is hypothetico- deductive
x The unbiased researcher


Paragraph A            ix

29      ParagraphC

30      ParagraphD

31      ParagraphE

32      ParagraphF

33      Paragraph G


A   ‘Hypotheses,’ saidMedawar in 1964,‘are imaginative  and inspirational in

character’;  they are ‘adventures of  the

mind’. He was arguing in favour of the

position taken by Karl Popper in The

Logic of Scientific Discovery (1972, 3rd

edition) that the nature of scientific

methodis hypothetico-deductive and

not, asis generally believed, inductive.

B     It is essential that you,  as an intending

researcher,  understand the difference

between these two interpretations of the

research process so that you do not

become discouraged or begin to suffer

from a feeling of  ‘cheating’  or not going

about it the right way.

C  The myth of scientific method is that it is

inductive: that the formulation of

scientific theory starts with the basic,

raw evidence of the senses –  simple,

unbiased, unprejudiced observation. Out

of these sensory data –  commonly

referred to as ‘facts’ — generalisations

will form. The myth is  that from a

disorderly array of factual information

an orderly,  relevant theory will

somehow emerge. However, the s tarting

point of induction is an impossible one.

D   There  is no such thing as an  unbiased

observation. Every act of observation

we make is  a function  of what we have

seen or otherwise experienced in the

past. All scientific work of an

experimental or exploratory nature starts

with s ome expectation about the

outcome. This expectation is a

hypothesis.  Hypotheses provide the

initiative and incentive for the inquiry

and influence the method. It is in the

light of an expectation that s ome

observations are  held to be relevant and

some  irrelevant, that one methodology

is chosen and others discarded, that

some  experiments are conducted and

others are not. Where is, your naive,

pure and objective researcher now?

be correct then your hypothesis has been

supported and may be  retained until

such time as some further test shows it

not to be correct.  Once you have arrived

at your hypothesis, which is  a product of

your imagination, you  then proceed to a

strictly logical and rigorous  process,

based upon deductive argument —

hence the term ‘hypothetico-deductive’.

E    Hypotheses  arise  by guesswork, or byinspiration,  but having been formulated

they can and must be tested  rigorously,

using  the appropriate methodology. If

the predictions you make as  a result of

deducing certain consequences from

your hypothesis are not shown to be

correct then you discard or modify your

hypothesis.  If the predictions turn out to

F   So don’t worry if you have some idea of

what your results  will tell you before

you even begin to collect data; there are

no scientists in existence who really wait

until they have all the evidence in front

of them bef ore they try to work out what

it might possibly mean. The closest we

ever get to  this situation is when

something happens by  accident; but

even then the researcher has  to

formulate a hypothesis  to be tested

before being sure that, for example, a

mould might prove to be a successful

antidote to bacterial infection.

G   The myth of  scientific method is not

only that it is inductive (which we have

seen is  incorrect) but also that the

hypothetico-deductive method proceeds

in a step-by-step,  inevitable fashion. The

hypothetico-deductive method describes

the logical approach to much research

work, but it does not describe the

psychological behaviour that brings it

about. This is much more holistic  —

involving guesses , reworkings,

corrections, blind alleys and  above all

inspiration,  in the deductive  as well as

the hypothetic component -thanis

immediately apparent f rom reading the

f inal thesis  or published papers. These

have been, quite properly, organised into

a more serial, logical order so that the

worth of the output may be evaluated

independently of  the behavioural

processes by which it was obtained. It is

the difference, for example between the

academic papers with which Crick and

Watson demonstrated the structure of

the DNA molecule and the fascinating

book The Double Helix in which Watson

(1968) described how they did it. From

this point of  view, ‘scientific method’

may more usefully be thought of as a

way of writing up research rather  than as

a way of carrying it out.



Questions 6 and 7

In which TWO paragraphs  in reading passage does  the writer give advice directly to  the reader?

Write the TWO appropriate letters (A—G)  in boxes 6 and 7 on your  answer sheet.

Questions 8-11

Do the following statements reflect the opinions of the writer in Reading Passage ?

In boxes 7-10  on your answer sheet write

YES                if the statement reflects the opinion of the writer

NO                  if the statement contradicts the opinion  of the writer

NOT GIVEN             if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

7     Popper says that the scientific method is hypothetico-deductive.

8     If a  prediction based on a hypothesis is fulfilled, then the hypothes is is confirmed as true.

9      Many people carry out research in a mistaken way.

10    The  ‘scientific method’ is more  a way of describing res earch than  a way of doing it.

Question 12

Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write it in box 12 on  your answer sheet.

Which of the following statements bes t describes the writer’s main purpose in Reading Passage ?

A    to advise Ph.D students not to cheat while carrying out research

B    to encouragePh.D students  to work by guesswork and inspiration

C    to explain to Ph. D students  the logic which the scientific research paper  follows

D    to help Ph. D students by explaining different conceptions of the research process



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Good luck and success !





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