PART 1 (12 pts)
Reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-G.
Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs C-G from the list of headings below.
Write the appropriate numbers i-x in boxes 29-33 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
|i||The Crick and Watson approach to research|
|ii||Antidotes to bacterial infection|
|iii||The testing of hypotheses|
|iv||Explaining the inductive method|
|v||Anticipating results bef ore data is collected|
|vi||How research is done and how it is reported|
|vii||The role of hypotheses in scientific research|
|viii||Deducing the consequences of hypotheses|
|ix||Kar l Popper’s claim that the scientific method is hypothetico- deductive|
|x||The unbiased researcher|
Paragraph A ix
33 Paragraph G
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
|A ‘Hypotheses,’ saidMedawar in 1964,‘are imaginative and inspirational in
character’; they are ‘adventures of the
mind’. He was arguing in favour of the
position taken by Karl Popper in The
Logic of Scientific Discovery (1972, 3rd
edition) that the nature of scientific
methodis hypothetico-deductive and
not, asis generally believed, inductive.
B It is essential that you, as an intending
researcher, understand the difference
between these two interpretations of the
research process so that you do not
become discouraged or begin to suffer
from a feeling of ‘cheating’ or not going
about it the right way.
C The myth of scientific method is that it is
inductive: that the formulation of
scientific theory starts with the basic,
raw evidence of the senses – simple,
unbiased, unprejudiced observation. Out
of these sensory data – commonly
referred to as ‘facts’ — generalisations
will form. The myth is that from a
disorderly array of factual information
an orderly, relevant theory will
somehow emerge. However, the s tarting
point of induction is an impossible one.
D There is no such thing as an unbiased
observation. Every act of observation
we make is a function of what we have
seen or otherwise experienced in the
past. All scientific work of an
experimental or exploratory nature starts
with s ome expectation about the
outcome. This expectation is a
hypothesis. Hypotheses provide the
initiative and incentive for the inquiry
and influence the method. It is in the
light of an expectation that s ome
observations are held to be relevant and
some irrelevant, that one methodology
is chosen and others discarded, that
some experiments are conducted and
others are not. Where is, your naive,
pure and objective researcher now?
be correct then your hypothesis has been
supported and may be retained until
such time as some further test shows it
not to be correct. Once you have arrived
at your hypothesis, which is a product of
your imagination, you then proceed to a
strictly logical and rigorous process,
based upon deductive argument —
hence the term ‘hypothetico-deductive’.
|E Hypotheses arise by guesswork, or byinspiration, but having been formulated
they can and must be tested rigorously,
using the appropriate methodology. If
the predictions you make as a result of
deducing certain consequences from
your hypothesis are not shown to be
correct then you discard or modify your
hypothesis. If the predictions turn out to
F So don’t worry if you have some idea of
what your results will tell you before
you even begin to collect data; there are
no scientists in existence who really wait
until they have all the evidence in front
of them bef ore they try to work out what
it might possibly mean. The closest we
ever get to this situation is when
something happens by accident; but
even then the researcher has to
formulate a hypothesis to be tested
before being sure that, for example, a
mould might prove to be a successful
antidote to bacterial infection.
G The myth of scientific method is not
only that it is inductive (which we have
seen is incorrect) but also that the
hypothetico-deductive method proceeds
in a step-by-step, inevitable fashion. The
hypothetico-deductive method describes
the logical approach to much research
work, but it does not describe the
psychological behaviour that brings it
about. This is much more holistic —
involving guesses , reworkings,
corrections, blind alleys and above all
inspiration, in the deductive as well as
the hypothetic component -thanis
immediately apparent f rom reading the
f inal thesis or published papers. These
have been, quite properly, organised into
a more serial, logical order so that the
worth of the output may be evaluated
independently of the behavioural
processes by which it was obtained. It is
the difference, for example between the
academic papers with which Crick and
Watson demonstrated the structure of
the DNA molecule and the fascinating
book The Double Helix in which Watson
(1968) described how they did it. From
this point of view, ‘scientific method’
may more usefully be thought of as a
way of writing up research rather than as
a way of carrying it out.
Questions 6 and 7
In which TWO paragraphs in reading passage does the writer give advice directly to the reader?
Write the TWO appropriate letters (A—G) in boxes 6 and 7 on your answer sheet.
Do the following statements reflect the opinions of the writer in Reading Passage ?
In boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet write
YES if the statement reflects the opinion of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the opinion of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
7 Popper says that the scientific method is hypothetico-deductive.
8 If a prediction based on a hypothesis is fulfilled, then the hypothes is is confirmed as true.
9 Many people carry out research in a mistaken way.
10 The ‘scientific method’ is more a way of describing res earch than a way of doing it.
Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write it in box 12 on your answer sheet.
Which of the following statements bes t describes the writer’s main purpose in Reading Passage ?
A to advise Ph.D students not to cheat while carrying out research
B to encouragePh.D students to work by guesswork and inspiration
C to explain to Ph. D students the logic which the scientific research paper follows
D to help Ph. D students by explaining different conceptions of the research process
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