(GRAMMAR) PASSIVE VOICE – Thể bị động


FULL PDF: https://app.box.com/s/ygp5db6zeoui47b3bans

I. INTRODUCTION

 Các bạn hãy theo dõi hai ví dụ sau:

a. Ông sếp giao việc cho tôi

b. Tôi được ông sếp giao cho công việc

Chúng ta nhận ra ở đầu, ông sếp là chủ thể thực hiện hành động giao việc, còn tôi là chủ thể tiếp nhận công việc đó. Khi ta viết lại câu trên, ta có thể đảo sự sắp xếp giữa 2 chủ thể. Câu mà có sự đảo ngược này mà vẫn giữ nguyên ý câu ban đầu thì được gọi là câu bị động. Còn câu đầu tiên, chủ thể thực hiện luôn đứng trước thì ta gọi đó là câu chủ động. Vậy trong Tiếng Anh, câu bị động có còn giống như vậy hay không ?

 

Hãy xem tiếp hai ví dụ sau:

a. The boss gave me a job

b. I was given a job by the boss

 

Ta thấy, vị trí của chủ thể trong hai câu chủ động bị động trong Tiếng Anh giống với hai ví dụ ban đầu. Vậy bây giờ, ta sẽ đi tìm hiểu về câu bị động trong Tiếng Anh

II. USAGE

 

Ta ít khi dùng câu bị động trong văn nói của Tiếng Anh, nhưng dùng câu bị động khi viết văn là một điểm nhấn tốt và gây được cảm tình với người chấm bài cũng như làm phong phú vốn từ vựng của bạn. Cơ bản, câu bị động có cấu trúc như sau:

 

ACTIVE:

S1 (Direct subject) + V(chia theo thì) + O (Indirect subject) + O (Supplementary object)

 

 

The boss                         gave               me                                                        a job

PASSIVE:

S1 (O – Indirect subject) + V(sau này sẽ nói tới)+ O (Supplementary object)  + by + S2 (S1 – Direct subject)

I                                     was given                          a job                            by               the boss

Bây giờ, ta nói tới phần động từ

Với mỗi thì thì động từ của thể bị động lại được viết theo các cách khác nhau. Cụ thể

Hiện tại Hiện tại đơn is/are/am + V3 (past participle)
Hiện tại tiếp diễn is/are/am + being + V3 (past participle)
Hiện tại hoàn thành has been/have been + V3 (past participle)
Quá khứ Quá khứ đơn was/were + V3 (past participle)
Quá khứ tiếp diễn was/were + being + V3 (past participle)
Quá khứ hoàn thành had been + V3 (past participle)
Tương lai Tương lai đơn will be + V3 (past participle)
be + going to is/are/am + going to be + V3 (past participle)
Động từ khuyết thiếu must, can, may, might must/can/may/might + be V3 (past participle)

 

*Bạn nào chưa học thuộc bảng phân từ quá khứ thì hãy học thuộc lại tại

https://englishstudyshare.wordpress.com/2014/07/19/irregular-verbs-and-past-participles-table/

Đây là mảng kiến thức rất quan trọng

 

Bây giờ, ta lại nói tới phần by S:

Ta cần chú ý:

Nếu như có trạng từ chỉ thời gian thì đặt by S trước nó

Nếu như có trạng từ chỉ địa điểm thì đặt by S sau trước nó

Nếu như có cả trạng từ chỉ thời gian và trạng từ chỉ địa điểm thì đặt by S đằng sau nó

E.g: She was required to finish the job by her teacher within 20 minutes

The present was bought from the shop by my brother

The toy was bought from the shop yesterday by my brother

 

III. SPECIAL PASSIVE FORMS

 

1. Bị động truyền khiến (Causative form)

 

Đây là một cấu trúc đặc biệt. Khi ta nói ta để có ai đó được … là cấu trúc chủ đạo

 

S1 (Direct subject) + have (chia theo thì) + O (Indirect object) + V3

I                      have                                         the bowl          cleaned

OR

S1 (Direct subject) + have (chia theo thì) + S2 (Direct object) + V (infinitive – nguyên thể) + O (Indirect object)

I                      have                                      my brother                            clean                           the bowl

 

Như vậy, thay vì có 1 chủ ngữ thì ở đây có 2 chủ ngữ nhưng là chủ thể hành động còn tân ngữ lại đóng vai trò chủ thể bị động

E.g: My sister has had her shoes polished

OR  My sister has had my father polish her shoes

Ngoài dùng HAVE ta có thể dùng GET:

S1 (Direct subject) + get (chia theo thì) + O (Indirect object) + V3

I                      get                                         the bowl          cleaned

OR

 

S1 (Direct subject) + get (chia theo thì) + S2 (Direct object) + to V + O (Indirect object)

I                      get                                      my brother        to clean      the bowl

E.g: My sister has had her shoes polished

OR  My sister has had my father polish her shoes

OR My sister has got her shoes polished/my father to polish her shoes

 

2. Special passive (Bị động đặc biệt – report, believe, announce, …)

Dạng này dùng chủ yếu trong văn viết và rất hay sử dụng trong ngành báo chí. Ta chú ý là hay dùng dạng này với một số động từ như report, believe, announce, urge, required, demand, …

 

Cụ thể như sau:

(1)

Với thì các hiện tại:

S1 (Indirect subject) + be + V (các động từ ở trên) + to V (chủ động)/to be V3 (bị động)

Với thì quá khứ

S1 (Indirect subject) + be + V (các động từ ở trên) + to have V3 (chủ động)/to have been V3 (bị động)

 

E.g: It was reported that five new schools were built

Five new school were reported to have been built

 

Ta có thể dùng với cấu trúc (2) It is/was + V (các động từ ở trên) + that + mệnh đề

CHÚ Ý: Động từ gắn với mệnh đề nào chia đúng như thì của động từ đó khi chuyển sang dạng (1)

 

3. Một số dạng khác (Other forms)

a. Ghét bị/Thích được

Ta sẽ dùng cấu trúc:

S1 (Indirect and direct subject) + like/hate (chia theo thì) + being V3

 

She                                                   hates                     being demanded

b. Bị bắt phải làm gì đó

Dạng này rất đặc biệt. Cụ thể:

S1 (Indirect subject) + be (chia theo thì) + made + to V

= S1 (Direct subject) + make (chia theo thì) + S2 (Indirect subject) + V (infinitive)

 

E.g: I am made to do thes chores

OR  My mother makes me do these chores  

EXERCISES:

1. Rewrite these sentences using passive form

1. Somebody has taken my briefcase.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

2. The teacher returned our written work to us.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

3. She had finished her report by noon.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

4. The mad dog bit the little boy.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

5. The police have arrested five suspects.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

6. The doctor ordered him to take a long rest.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Lightning  struck the house.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

8. A group of students have met their friend at the railway station.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

9. They didn’t  allow Tom to take these books home.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

10. The teacher won’t correct exercise tomorrow.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

11. Marry has operated Tom since 10 o’clock.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

12. This is the second time they have written to us about this.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

13. Mr. Smith has taught us French for two years.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

14. They didn’t look after the children properly.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

15. Nobody swept this strreet last week.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

16. People drink a great deal of tea in England.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

17. People speak English all over the world.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

18. Tom was writing two poems.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

19. She often takes her dog for a walk.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

20. They can’t make tea with cold water.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Rewrite these sentences using the words given

1. The manager decided to hire a mechanic to fix the machine

The manager would_______________________________________________________________________

2. It is said that he is 100 years old

He is said________________________________________________________________________________

3. My mother made me to do these homework

I was required____________________________________________________________________________

4. Last year, we received a very meaningful present from my dad

I was given_______________________________________________________________________________

5. “Don’t you understand these words’ meanings ?” the teacher said

I was told________________________________________________________________________________

6. It was announced that there will be an anniversary celebrated in the conference

An anniversary___________________________________________________________________________

7. Nowadays, many people speak English

English is ________________________________________________________________________________

8. Fewer details were reported to have been attached in the paper

It is _____________________________________________________________________________________

9. She has somebody fix the roof

She gets_________________________________________________________________________________

10. All workers must wear uniforms when they go to the factory

Uniforms must be_________________________________________________________________________

3. Complete the following text using the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets

Adventourists are beginning to discover Campinilea, and the island is hard at work getting ready to welcome more visitors. A new airport (1)__________(build) last year, and at the moment, hotels (2) __________ (construct) along the southern beaches. A new road(3) __________ ( finish). Next year so visitors will be able to reach the northern region. Five years ago, verry little(4) __________ (know) about Campinilea; but last year, three books (5) __________ (write) about the island, and serveral guidebooks(6) __________ (publish). At the moment, these books (7) __________ ( translate) into different languages. English(8) __________ ( teach) in schools so many Campinileans know a little English, but not many other foreign languages(9)__________ (speak).

Tourism has brought many changes to this small island, and people are afraid that it will have a negative effect on the tradiyional customs and culture of the people. For example, last month in the capital, serveral young Campinileans (10) __________ (arrest) for being drunk in publish, and some tourist (11) __________ (rob) near the beach. However, if you leave the tourist areas and go up to the mountains, you will find that life is  still the same as it was hundreds of years ago. For example, since the sixteenth century, the same tribal dances(12) __________ (perform) to the celebrate the Campinilean new year, and the same type of food (13) __________ (serve). For centuries, visitors (14) __________ (invite) to join Campinileans in the celebration of festivals, and you will find traditional Campinilean hospitality in these regions has not changed at all.

ANSWER KEY

1.

1. My briefcase has been taken.

2. Our written work was returned to us by the teacher.

3. The report  had been finished by noon.

4. The little boy was bitten by the mad dog.

5. Five suspects have been arrested by the police.

6. He was ordered to take a long rest by the doctor.

7. The house was struck by lightning.

8. Their friend has been met at the railway station  by a group of students.

9. Tom wasn’t allowed to take these book home.

10. Exercises won’t be corrected by the teacher tomorrow.

11. Tom has been operated since 10 o’clock.

12. This is the second time we have been written  to about this.

13. We have been taught French by Mr Smith for two years.

14. The children weren’t properly looked after.

15. This street wasn’t swept last week.

16. A great deal of tea is drunk in England.

17. English is spoken all over the world.

18. Two poems were being written.

19. Her dog is often taken for a walk.

20. Tea can’t be made with cold water.

1. The manager decided to hire a mechanic to fix the machine

The manager would have a mechanic fix the machine

*KHÔNG DÙNG the machine fixed vì rõ ràng ở đây có A MECHANIC

2. It is said that he is 100 years old

He is said to be 100 years old

3. My mother made me to do these homework

I was required to do these homework by my mother

4. Last year, we received a very meaningful present from my dad

I was given a very meaningful present last year by my dad

5. “Don’t you understand these words’ meanings ?” the teacher said

I was told to have not understood the words’ meanings

6. It was announced that there will be an anniversary celebrated in the conference

An anniversary was announced to be celebrated in the conference

7. Nowadays, many people speak English

English is spoken much nowadays

* KHÔNG DÙNG BY VỚI CÁC Subject NHƯ ĐẠI TỪ XƯNG HÔ, NOBODY, SOMEBODY, ANYBODY, …

8. Fewer details were reported to have been attached in the paper

It is reported that fewer details were attached in the paper

9. She has somebody fix the roof

She gets somebody to fix the roof/the roof fixed
* Ở ĐÂY LẠI DÙNG ĐƯỢC the roof fixed vì chủ ngữ là SOMEBODY

10. All workers must wear uniforms when they go to the factory

Uniforms must be worn by all workers when they go to the factory

* KHI CÓ WHEN THÌ ĐÓ ĐƯỢC COI NHƯ MỘT TRẠNG TỪ CHỈ THỜI GIAN. TƯƠNG TỰ VỚI WHERE THÌ ĐƯỢC COI LÀ MỘT TRẠNG TỪ CHỈ ĐỊA ĐIỂM

3.

1.  was built                                        8. is taught

2. are being constructed             9. are spoken

3. will be finished                           10. were arrested

4. was known                                    11. were robbed

5. were written                                12. have been performed

6. were publisged                           13. has been served

7. are being translated                  14. have been invited

 

Good luck and success !

 

 

 

 

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